Warning: Use of undefined constant wp_cumulus_widget - assumed 'wp_cumulus_widget' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /homepages/23/d444355695/htdocs/wpHomeGardeningForBeginnerORG/new/html/home/wp-content/plugins/wp-cumulus/wp-cumulus.php on line 375 Nitrogen Archives - Home Gardening for Beginners
Bucket garden ideas is the answer for you if you have a small space, little time, and a limited budget. This is an ideal solution for people that are away from home for days at a time. The bucket garden idea video includes easy instructions on how to build and maintain and expandable self watering system.
Fall is the best time to prepare your garden soil for next spring. Soil is the most important factor in raising a successful garden. There are five basic fall soil preparation components that you will need to explore to maximize soil fertility. These components are: soil pH; soil structure; and the levels of phosphorus and potassium, secondary and micro nutrients, and nitrogen. New gardeners will not want to mess with soil preparation. Purchasing bagged garden soil is simple and easy. The bagged soil has been tested, nutrients added, and is properly mixed to give you what you need to get started. I would recommend checking out http://homegardeningforbeginners.org/featured/bag-gardening-for-home-vegetables/ which explains a great way to easily grow vegetables right in the soil bags.
Fall Vegetable Garden Soil Test
Fall is the best time to annually test your soil so you can adjust the pH, phosphorus, and potassium. Check with your County Extension Office http://npic.orst.edu/pest/countyext.htm for places to have your soil tested. Many Extension Office test soil samples for pH levels for free. Most offices can send samples to their affiliated university for pH, phosphorus, potassium and other tests for a fee. This office recommends soil additives and application rates to correct any problems specific to your soil samples and soil in your area. To take a soil sample get an equal slice of soil at least 8” deep for every 100 square feet. Keep surface debris out of the sample. Place the samples in a bucket with up to five other spade slices., mix all samples together well, and take about two cups out for each sample. Record on the sample label your name, date and sample number. Make a diagram map that shows where the sample came from. Let the samples air dry to prevent soil fertility changes. You can purchase a home test kit and meters that you can test for pH, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). I have not had very consistent results from these home tests.
Fall Garden Tips for pH
The pH is the most important single soil component. pH is the scale is from 1 to 14 that measures the levels of acid or alkaline in the soil. Most garden plants prefer the pH between 5.5 and 6.5. Lime is used to raise the pH and sulfur is commonly used to lower the pH. If the pH is too high or low it can tie up many needed plant nutrients. It is important to make the recommended additions in the fall before deep tilling. The soil pH is not mobile in the soil. For example, if limestone is applied to the surface without tilling, pH will be very alkaline on the surface and very acid deep in the soil. It takes time for the additives to change the pH of the soil so it is ideal to apply lime or sulfur in the fall. The smaller the lime is ground up the quicker it will change the pH. Soil pH is the most important component when preparing you fall garden and will correct most deficiencies of micronutrients.
Phosphorus and Potassium Suggestions for Fall Garden
Phosphorus and potassium are two macro-nutrients that are needed by plants in relatively large quantities. A fall soil test is the best way to determine the level of these two elements. These elements are not very mobile in the soil like the pH additives. They need to be tilled into the soil at a depth of 8”. Your Extension office can recommend the amounts of phosphorus P?O? and potassium K?O for you soil types. Phosphorus deficiency results in slow growth and older leaves turn purple. Potassium deficiency results in slow growth and leaf edges turn light green to yellow. Fertilizer labels have 3 numbers, the N-P-K formula, for example: 10-5-15. These numbers represent 10% nitrogen, 5% phosphorus, and 15% potassium per bag. The remaining 70% consists of fillers.
Fall Garden Soil Structure Information
Soil structure refers mainly to the size of soil particles. Soil has three size categories: clay –small, silt-medium, and sand-large. Which is best? Each size has advantages and disadvantages. Clay for example will hold nutrients and moisture but it is so dense the plant has a hard time sending roots through the tight mass. Sand has plenty of air pockets for the plant roots but does not hold nutrients, and the soil dries out quickly putting plants at a disadvantage when it is dry. A combination of different sizes is the best. Adding organic material to any of these soils is what I recommend. Compost, coconut coir, large animal well-rotted manures and peat moss will provide needed plant nutrients, hold water and allow good air movement in the soil. I had a garden with some of the best soil in the world that was 6 feet of top soil and I still had a big increase in yields as a result of adding compost. Adding organic materials to your fall garden will help correct any problems you soil structure might be causing.
Fall Garden Plan for Secondary and Micro Nutrients
Secondary nutrients include: calcium, magnesium, sodium, and sulfur. They are required in small quantities but are still essential for good plant growth. Plant micronutrients are elements needed in even small amounts than the secondary groups for the plant to thrive. They include manganese, boron, copper, iron, chlorine, molybdenum, and zinc. Soils with high amounts of organic material and have a soil pH between 6 and 7 tend to have adequate amounts of these elements. In most cases testing for micronutrients is not needed unless the plants are not productive. To insure you have enough organic material spread 25 to 100 pounds of compost or partially decomposed manure per 100 square feet.
Nitrogen Advice for Fall Garden
Testing for nitrogen is not recommended. Nitrogen is very mobile in the soil. Excessive snow melt, rain and irrigation can move the available forms of nitrogen below the root zone. For the most eco-friendly application of nitrogen, fertilize in small amounts and increase amounts when the plant is rapidly growing. For example a corn plant uses the largest percent of total nitrogen between being knee high and tasseling. Here is a good video on “Planting a Vegetable Garden for Spring” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gNOe0UogfY0&feature=youtu.be. My rule of thumb is to fertilize with nitrogen when the plant loses its deep green color and the growth slows. Too much nitrogen will cause green plant growth and suppress fruit formation. Adding too much fertilizer is a problem many beginning gardeners make
Fall is an excellent time to prepare your garden for next spring. Soil preparation requires soil testing and an adjustment period for the soil. If pH additives and additional phosphorus and potassium are needed it all must be incorporated 8” deep to maximize the results. Tilled in compost or animal manure in the fall helps build beneficial soil organisms (bacteria, fungi, and worms) during the winter months. Here is some excellent information on “Fertilizing the Organic Garden” http://extension.unh.edu/resources/files/Resource000489_Rep511.pdf. By understanding and preparing the soil you will maximize the production of your spring garden. Many gardeners wait until a later convenient time and that results in this gardening task not getting done. Start your spring garden with the proper fall garden soil preparation.
“What do I do with all those leaves?” Look at the beautiful fall leaves that pile up as future plant food. People have been asking how to compost fall leaves. Composting is a great way for beginner home gardeners to prepare for next year’s garden, save money, and help the environment. Garden soil is the most important factor in the success of a garden. Compost loosens the soil, provides slow release of nutrients, aids in soil drainage and aeration, and allows great water retention – saving on the water that you use. Composting fall leaves is easy if you understand the science behind the process. Rather than sending your leaves to the landfill consider composting them using these easy steps.
The composting process takes organic materials (previously alive things) and breaks them down into basic nutrient components that are easily absorbed by plants. How to Compost Autumn Leaves is a great video to help you understand the basis. Composting requires needs these components in the correct proportions to quickly complete the process: moisture, heat, composting organisms, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Nature does it all the time without the help of humans. Proper management of the compost can greatly speed the process. You can produce leaf compost more quickly by looking for these four basic indicators in your compost pile: 1. temperature, 2. moisture, 3. odor, and 4. fluffiness (available air pockets). Take the temperature with a thermometer. Within days of building your compost pile the temp should rise until it reaches between 104-150°F (40-65°C). Measure the moisture level, by squeezing a handful of compost, if water drips out it is too wet. Too much water takes up the space needed by oxygen that feeds the aerobic bacteria. A highly efficient compost pile should first smell like the materials the being composted – grass, leaves, or straw for example. Later in the composting process it will smell like garden dirt or a fresh rain. If the compost pile smells sour or rotten the materials are too wet or lacking more carbon-based material. Knowing how to Compost fall leaves can quickly turn litter into black gold or compost. Here are my 6 ways for a speedy leaf composting adventure.
How to compost using full sun
The quicker the sun heats up the compost pile the quicker the bacteria start growing and begin the composting process. Autumn can have very cold temperatures. Additional heat from the sun can jumpstart the process in the fall. Once the bacteria begin growing, it will generate its own needed temperature. A warm compost pile can be covered with snow and still produce plumes of steam. Giving your compost pile a warm start can continue the process throughout the winter. Knowing how to compost involves getting the temperature up to start the process.
How to compost using a mower and grinder
Flat leaves fall to the ground and stack up in layers cutting needed air pockets for the bacteria. Mow over the leaves, rake, and then pile. Or you can use a grass catcher bag on your mower and then pile. The addition of the grass clippings in the mix will speed up the composting process. Grass clipping have higher nitrogen content than leaves only. The pulverized leaves should be dumped in layers onto the compost pile. You can also use a machine made to grind up leaves and twigs. Another way to chop up leaves is to place the leaves in a garbage can and plunge a string trimmer down into the can. When using power tools always read and follow the safety instructions. Breaking leaves down into smaller pieces will help stop leaf packing and speed up the composting process. Leaf crushing may not be practical if you have lots of leaves. Knowing how to compost involves air pockets in the pile.
How to compost using an additional nitrogen source
Nitrogen is needed to feed the aerobic bacteria that break down the leaves. Low cost organic nitrogen sources include: fruit and vegetable kitchen scraps, lawn clippings and cattle, horse, poultry, and rabbit manures. Avoid – meats, dairy products, fats, oils and cat and dog manures. A non-organic nitrogen source could be commercial 10-10-10 fertilizer. Most leaf compost piles will benefit from about ½ cup (118.29 Milliliters) per 1 ft. deep X 4 ft. X 4 ft. or (0.30480 M X 1.2192 M X 1.2192 M). Adding extra nitrogen will greatly increase the decomposition rate of your leaves. Any extra nutrients added will be available to your garden when the compost is applied. Additional nitrogen sources will give your leaf compost a jump on the winter temperatures. Knowing how to compost involves using the correct nitrogen ratio.
How to compost using layers of different materials?
Leaves tend to compact easily when they get wet. It is important to layer the leaves with dampened garden soil, and a nitrogen source. Do not use soil that has recently been treated with weed killer. It could slow the compost process and kill the garden plants. Damp soil has the useful bacteria that are needed to begin the composting process. You can purchase commercial compost starter. I have found that garden soil works just as well. It is easier to first apply the dry soil, nitrogen source, and then dampen with a garden hose. The ideal moisture content for compost is 40-60%. In comparison, freshly mown grass has about 50% moisture. When compost is squeezed it should stick together. It must be dry enough that a squeeze does not produce a drop of liquid. Spraying the water on each layer will work the soil, bacteria, and nitrogen source down into the pile, speeding the process.
How to compost using the flat top method
A mound of dried leaves can seal the top of the compost pile causing the water to run off like shingles on a roof. Some compost piles then stay completely dry in the middle. The mound of leaves on the top caused the rain to run off. When building a leaf compost pile it is important to make the top flat or slightly concave (dipped). This causes the water to run into the middle of the pile carrying the soil, bacteria, and nitrogen down through the pile. This will encourage an explosion of bacteria growth. Knowing how to compost fall leaves involves getting moisture to the center of the pile.
How to compost by introducing oxygen
Hard and shiny leaves tend to easily compress together. It is vital to turn the compost pile to introduce oxygen to the bacteria. Several days after building a leaf compost pile the temperature increases. The temp will then slowly decrease. When the temperature significantly drops it is time to turn the pile. Simply move the pile from one spot to another to introduce new air pockets. This will also mix up the elements so each piece comes in contact with the moisture, bacteria and nitrogen. Turning the compost pile is kind of like kneading bread dough. It causes the pile temperature to increase again. Repeat these turning process until the materials are broken down and the temp does not increase. At this stage, the shape of the original material is not recognizable. A great way to speed the process is to use a rotating compost barrel that allows you to easily turn the compost, usually several times a week. It is surprising how much the additional aeration will speed the process.
Your fallen leaves can be made into a valuable environmentally friendly garden accelerator. If you want a successful garden it starts with organically rich soil. The best way to get high quality, low cost, and environmentally friendly soil additive is to compost your own leaves. By following my 6 steps To Speedy Leaf Composting you can possibly produce a batch of completed fall leaf compost in three months. How to compost and why are covered on a great web page Composting at Home Introduction to Composting. If the compost is not properly managed it could take from 6 to 12 months. To maximize the composting process it is important to understand the 4 basic compost pile signals: 1. temperature, 2. moisture, 3. odor, and 4. fluffiness (available air pockets). By understanding the composting process and how the elements work together your process time will greatly be reduced. As you manage your compost pile I encourage you to experiment with different combinations of: moisture, heat, organisms, carbon based organic material, nitrogen and oxygen. Composting is another way beginner gardeners can enjoy the beautiful leaves in the fall..
I am a Midwest boy that was trained by some of the leading corn professors in the world. After building a 20 foot tower with a grow light inside an upside down garbage can in my back yard with; full sun, 5 feet topsoil, and the best corn fertilizer program available. My corn plant reached 17.5 feet. I asked my professor why after following all of the best management practices, why did the corn plant not break the world record which was 21.5 feet then.it not grow higher? His answer surprisingly was day length. When summer starts, June 21 the days get shorter and this tells most corn plants that it is time to prepare to tassel. It may take different number of days to tassel depending on the corn variety. My stock started tasseling in mid July.stopping its upward growth. That year I moved away from my tower, excellent soil and a full sun yard so I have never tried again.
Key to growing the tallest corn plant is a shade program that does not let the corn plant know the days are getting shorter starting June 21. It is easier to set a system that limits light rather than trying to substitute artificial light. My garbage can with a 100 watt grow light had little effect on the day length effect, according to the expert. So build a tower that you can keep 100 % of light out, and can open it up every day so the plant thing the days are getting longer the plant will never try to set a tassel so it will keep growing upward. This takes a lot of planning and limiting the day length at the beginning of the growth.